The study is aimed to compare the institutional framework of land consolidation in Slovenia and Norway. The traditional meaning of land consolidation is that is a comprehensive reallocation process in a rural area that suffers from fragmentation of agricultural and forest holdings or their parts. Nowadays, land consolidation has to be seen in a much broader sense and could be an integral part of rural as well as urban development projects. Nevertheless, the focus of our study is on land consolidation in rural areas, where the legal background as well as organizational part of land consolidation projects in Slovenia and Norway is introduced and compared. In both countries, rural land consolidation projects are of national importance due to limited areas for advanced agricultural production and problematic land fragmentation of agricultural holdings. Since development of the procedures has been influenced by the historical trends, tradition, legislation, and land administration systems in the countries, a special attention has been given to the historical overview of land consolidation in Slovenia and Norway. All these aspects have to be considered when comparing land consolidation procedures between different countries. The research includes historical background, organization, objectives, procedures and the development prospects of land consolidation in Slovenia and Norway. Based on literature research and knowledge from the practical examples, the objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences in the rural land consolidation procedure in Slovenia and Norway.